9 results found

Confirmation Bias

Confirmation Bias is a type of cognitive bias. It can take many forms, but in general, it refers to our tendency to seek out information that confirms our beliefs while ignoring information that challenges our beliefs. As with most cognitive biases and logical fallacies, confirmation bias can be intentional or unintentional. A good example of confirmation bias can be seen by looking at the debate over whether or not vaccines cause autism. People who believe that vaccines cause autism often arrive at that...

An Introduction To Cognitive Bias

In some other lectures I have done, I discussed a variety of different logical fallacies. In case you missed those, a logical fallacy is simply a mistake in the logical structure of someone's argument. Many of the common fallacies are given different names to help categorize them and make them more easily recognizable. In this lecture, I want to start looking at the psychology that causes all of us to commit logical fallacies from time to time. Broadly speaking, most logical fallacies are unintentional,...

Automation bias

A cognitive bias in which we give too much weight to information that comes from a computer even if it doesn't match up with our own observations, experience, or common sense. A perfect example is GPS devices, which are often wrong or outdated. Even when the output doesn't match their surroundings, many people will continue to defer to the GPS device instead of common sense. #glasscage #technology #psychology

An intro to perceptrons

A perceptron is the most basic type of neuron used in artificial neural networks. They were developed in the 1950's and have since been replaced by a new type called sigmoid neurons, but understanding them helps to understand sigmoid neurons. A perceptron takes several binary inputs, x1, x2,... and produces a binary output. Each input has a weight represented by a real number that expresses the importance of each input when determining the output. Using these inputs, the perceptron checks if...

The Fallacy Of Moving The Goalpost

Moving the goalposts is a fallacy in which the two parties in a debate agree on evidence that would refute a claim, but then, when such evidence is presented, the “losing” side insists that the given evidence is insufficient. At first this might not seem like a fallacy, because while it is obviously a cheap shot to use in a debate, the logical implications of it are not so obvious. But as we will see, it is, in fact, a...

The Fallacy Of Cherry Picking

Cherry picking is a logical fallacy in which someone points out evidence that supports their claim while ignoring the evidence against their claim. The name of this fallacy is an allusion to the act of picking cherries off a tree, in which you only take the good fruits while leaving the bad ones behind. Cherry picking can either be intentional or unintentional. A case where it might be intentional is when someone commits an act known as “quote mining”, in which they pull out selected...

The recency effect

The recency effect is a #CognitiveBias in which we are more likely to remember the last item in a series than those before it. A similar #bias is the primacy effect, which causes us to remember the first item on the list. These two are often combined into one bias known as the serial position effect, in which we remember the first and last items in a list better than the middle items. #psychology

The cross-race effect

The cross race effect is a cognitive #bias in which we are able to more accurately identify faces of people of the same race as us than the faces of people of another race. The effect has been shown to be true across a wide range of races. That is, it isn't just between blacks and whites, but is also true in tests between whites, blacks, Asians, Turks, Israelis, and many other groups. The effect is the same. There is some...

The false consensus effect

A cognitive bias where people tend to overestimate the extent to which others share their views, opinions, and habits. As a result, people often think their views are more popular than they really are. When presented with evidence disproving that consensus, people often assume the evidence is flawed in some way and continue to hold their beliefs. I can think of a case where I've done this. There is an app designed for business owners that I thought was overwhelmingly popular. But as I brought it up...