Ribosome Structure And Function

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By aaron

The ribosome is a cell component that is responsible for reading mRNA and translating the information into proteins. It does this in a process known as protein translation.

Ribosomes are made of a form of RNA called ribosomal RNA, or rRNA, as well as proteins. An individual ribosome is comprised of two main components called the large ribosomal subunit and the small ribosomal subunit. During protein translation, the small ribosomal subunit reads the mRNA sequence and the large ribosomal subunit joins amino acids together to build a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ribosomes can be free floating in the cytosol, or they can be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. When the endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached, it is known as rough ER.

Whether the ribosome is free-floating or attached to the ER will depend on the protein being created. If the ribosome is synthesizing a protein that will be embedded in the membrane of the cell or the membrane of an organelle, the ribosome attaches to the ER to synthesize the protein. But if the ribosome is building a protein for use somewhere else in the cell, it will be a free-floating ribosome. The ribosomes in the cytosol and those in the ER are structurally identical. In fact, one individual ribosome can move back and forth between the cytosol and the ER as needed to build the protein.

In addition to the ribosomes in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the cytosol, there are also ribosomes inside the mitochondria, although those in the mitochondria are produced from the mitochondria's own genes and more closely resemble the ribosomes of bacteria.

Prokaryotic cells also have ribosomes. However, because prokaryotic cells do no have an endoplasmic reticulum, the only ribosomes in prokaryotes are those in the cytosol. Prokaryotic ribosomes are very similar to those of eukaryotic cells, with only minor differences in size and structure. #science #biology #prokaryotes #eukaryotes #cell biology #RNA #protein

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