Monochromatic - Uses a single hue, usually with varied tints and shades of that hue. These color schemes tend to be "quiet", so they are useful for calming designs. But they can also get boring, so often a vibrant accent color is used to add some spice.
Analogous - Use 3 hues that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel. Tend to be harmonious and quiet.
Complementary - Use 2 colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. The contrast often makes them appear exciting, even jarring. By muting the colors a bit, you can tone down the impact.
Split-complementary - Made up of a color, plus the two colors adjacent to the complement of that color on the color wheel. Tend to be less jarring and more harmonious than complementary color schemes
Triadic - Composed of 3 colors that are evenly spaced on the color wheel. Very cheery, even youthful. Commonly used on sites for kids, but also anywhere you want to look fun.
Tetradic - Composed of 2 pairs of complementary colors, for a total of 4 colors. Be careful with these. They can often appear inharmonious and chaotic.
When designing a color scheme, consider the colors used in your photos. If possible, the photos should use a similar color scheme to maintain harmony.